Research Papers

Demand Collaboration strategy of supply chain management improves the education quality of a business school  (Download)


Collaborating demand in an industrial sector means moving downstream of the supply chain, coming closer to the customer or end user virtually, utilizing means to know the exact demand in real time and sharing the true demand as far as upstream of the supply chain, so that optimized supply chain output can be achieved in an end to end enterprise.

All stakeholders of the supply chain should get enhanced benefits in terms of cost decrease, time and quality improvements etc., resulting in a win-win for everyone. In case of service industries though, it is tricky and complex to decode the high up aforementioned strategy, in particular when it comes to an education institution, like a business school, offering business administration degrees in the town. Who would be the customer or an end user? What would be the demand? Where lies the upstream of the supply chain of a business school? Who is going to formulate the upstream part of the supply chain?

All of these are queries that are answered in this formal research paper. The paper concludes that the interpretation of demand in a business school would be its education quality and total package skill set that a business school visions to inject in a student. Students would then become the direct customers of the business school. This is not as simple as it looks like. Here some of the stakeholders would add into the supply chain of a business school and would then determine the true demand of the service that is required. These stakeholders would be parents, industry employers and society in addition to students. All of the four stakeholders have to get the advantage from the knowledge, learning and a complete skill set infused to the students. Approaching closer to the aforesaid stakeholders and sharing the outcomes with the faculty and top management, can best balance the supply with demand in case of a business school.

Dynamics of Quality Auditing for System Improvement (The case of Pakistani Industries)  (Download)


Experimenting with mental model, this paper attempts to highlight the dynamics of Quality Auditing in Quality Management System ISO 9001:2000 for System Improvement in Pakistani’s Industries. No one can deny the power of auditing and skills of auditor for identifying the areas of improvement for systems improvement. We usually talk about auditing methodology and auditing principles but ignore the role of auditor.

Using feedback loops as the organizing principles, practical experience and elements of ISO 9001:2000 standards act as a guidelines for building the model structure on the basis of systems thinking. The policies so created are on the basis of practical industrial experience and the empirical data. Feedback thoughts are the system structures that establish the role of quality auditing for continual improvement.

The attributes of the auditor are the essential skills which play the vital role for system improvement. The independent audit and identification of non-conformities help to design the plausible policies that can create viable patterns for system improvement within the industry. While developing the feedback structure, care has been taken that policies identified for the model should be based on the principles of feedback thoughts rather than parametric change. Systems Dynamics is a powerful management tool, which helps in analyzing industrial problems through constructing computer models of the underlying decision systems and experimenting with them.

SYSTEM DYNAMICS: An Effective Tool for Organizational Analysis and Prediction (Download)


We are living in a complex world, and where education and interest have created wide differences among individuals; they have also taught us to appreciate diversity as a lively attribute of life. In order to recognize diversity and recognize individual perception, and interpretation of various phenomena of life and the knowledge of different people about it, qualitative research is conducted and is becoming popular each day. The researchers and scientists keep devising new instruments and methodologies for enquiry, which are rational, holistic and solve real life problems.

The problems in organizations are not smooth and patterned like those in natural science and do not conduct themselves in a predictable way. Thus, logical positivism and reductionism often fails when we deal with complex problems in organizational perspective, especially involving human decision making. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA has developed a special research methodology to address complex problems of the systems called „System Dynamics?. 

The methodology involves The methodology involves, (1) identifying a problem, (2)developing a dynamic hypothesis explaining the cause of the problem, (3) building a computer simulation model of the system at the root of the problem, (4) testing the model to be certain that it reproduces the behavior seen in the real world, and (5) devising and testing in the model alternative policies that alleviate the problem, and (6) implementing this solution. However, we have focused more upon first three keeping in view the constraints of space and time. The paper is conceptual, divided into 4 segments. 1st discusses systems approach in organizational studies; the 2nd explores connection between systems approach and qualitative research; the 3rd identifies the similarities between qualitative methodologies and those used by system dynamics and lastly the paper shortly describes the system dynamics inquiry process. Some sample models are also attached as annexure.

Impact of Integrated Quality Improvement Teams in Supply Chain Manufacturing (SCM) (Download)


Impact of Integrated Quality Improvement Teams in Supply Chain Manufacturing (SCM) is a forgotten dimension. Key actors of Supply Chain manufacturing usually operate the Quality Improvement Teams in isolation. Working in isolation, they loose the insight of the problem and its long term impact is missed among the downstream and upstream departments of the Manufacturing Unit. Integrated Quality Improvement Teams working on the common theme not only can affect the operations of key actors of SCM but as well create a bottom line impact while improving the processes.

This paper depicts the application model of Integrated Quality Improvement Teams in Supply Chain manufacturing and its impact to enhance the productivity in the key actors of Supply Chain Manufacturing. Quality Circles, Kaizen Groups, Quality Improvement Teams usually take the projects which are distinct in nature. Usually two circles or teams work as a disjoint sets working in their own domains. Integration of the Quality Improvement teams in different upstream and downstream departments of SCM is usually ignored in production environment and makes difficult to understand the underlying causes of the symptoms that create impact on the company profit.

This application model portrays the power of integration of Quality Improvement Teams in supply chain manufacturing. Consequently, finger pointing is totally eliminated while addressing the complex inter-related issues among the key actors of supply chain manufacturing. It is hoped that this model will not only highlight the importance of team dynamics but as well improve the decision making process for value chain sustainability.

Role of TEAM (Trust, Ethics, Alignment, & Motivation) for Successful Implementation of Supply Chain Management of Retail Store Chains in Pakistan: A Conceptual Model (Download


Concept of supply chain management (SCM) is based upon the linking of different stake holders of the whole supply chain. The more coordinated these entities are, the more effective and efficient supply chain would it be. Literature shows that the most important factor for higher coordination among different companies is trust. Starting from inter department trust within the organization it expands to outer boundaries of the organization.

It becomes more critical for the success of a whole supply chain when it comes to establishing trust between different organizations. It is also empirically proved through literature that behavioral uncertainties and presence of socially ethical practices are the roots for presence/ absence of trust between two companies. Now, if some organization wants to create a successful supply chain, it has to align itself with the goals of its chain members. For that a certain level of trust establishment is necessary, which requires strong ethical grounds.

As, in some cases it might require a huge change in the whole organization from administrative level to cultural level, high level of motivation from the top management is required. In the absence of such motivation there are very few chances for the implementation of SCM in its true spirit. After a series of open ended interviews and detailed literature review, this paper is an attempt to consolidate some soft areas with the combined name of TEAM (Trust, Ethics, Alignment, and Motivation) which as a whole will guide towards a successful implementation of SCM.

Aligning the Supply Chains of Educational Institutes with Business Strategy (Download)


Schools that offer business subjects or arts in any part of the world either offer quality education leading to high expense or would opt for medium quality education and focusing more on getting economies of scales. Supply chain optimization of educational institutions is highly dependant on number of parameters which I refer to as drivers (e.g. no. of faculty, students, empowerment of faculty etc.), the intensity level of which needs to be gauged always. A common challenge is to not only highlighting those drivers and their inter-dependencies across the business framework of the institution but to seek the line of demarcation in the entire range (intensity) offered by that specific driver. That ONLY would be possible if business strategy is clearly defined. 

This Paper represents a model based on integration of various causal loop diagrams on selecting the intensity levels of each driver so as to chalk out an appropriate system model aligned and optimized. This model will direct or guide you to fine tune a specific driver to create synchronization and help align your supply chain network with business strategy. We find that by varying the intensity levels of one of the drivers may misalign your educational institution’s supply chain from business strategy and vice versa. An SD model is made formulating a spectrum of education quality, one extreme of which would be a cost effective education system and the other extreme is a high quality education system. The model encompasses all parametric and structural changes in the educational institution. 

This system model is a true picture of how the institution’s supply chain is aligned with the business strategy and is a useful guide for all managers and administrators of those educational institutions, the supply chain of which is portraying turmoil in contrary to the business strategy.


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